Re: Re: reorganisation and destruction of irish catholic churches
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The Gothic Revival in Holland
Architect no. 3
A. Tepe (1840-1920)
Wilhelm Victor Alfred Tepe is the second most important architect of neo-Gothicism in the Netherlands, after P.J.H. Cuypers. Tepe, the son of a German textiles-merchant who had moved to the Netherlands, was born in Amsterdam on the 24th of November 1840. He studied architecture at the Bauakadamie in Berlin from 1861 until 1864 but was not content with its Classical orientation. In his free time he studied the work of Viollet-le-Duc, the French expert on Gothic architecture, as well as actual churches. From 1865 until 1867 Tepe worked for Vincenz Statz, one of the leading neo-Gothic architects of Germany, in Cologne. Here he was involved with the restoration and completion of the cathedral, an experience that would become of a major influence on his work in the Netherlands.
In 1867 Tepe returned to Amsterdam, where he worked for an architect Ouderterp for a while, and moved to Utrecht in 1872 where he became one of the leading members of the St. Bernulphusgilde (‘Guild of St. Bernulphus’), a group of Catholic clergy and artists who strived to bring back national traditions and craftmanship in religious art and architecture, and which became a dominant factor in this field in the archdiocese of Utrecht. Influences from medieval indigenous styles were especially encouraged, as was the use of indigenous materials, especially brick. In this diocese Tepe built most of his work. Between 1871 and 1905 Tepe built ca. 70 churches, executed in brick with very little natural stone, and taking the late-Gothic 15th- and 16th-centuries’ styles of the Lower Rhine and Westphalia as examples. The interior of the churches was provided by other members of the St. Bernulphus Guild, of which F.W. Mengelberg was the most important. Until 1882 Tepe had an almost total monopoly in the field of church architecture in the archdiocese. Only after the death of archbishop Schaepman did other architects get more of a chance.
Besides churches Tepe designed various monasteries, schools, orphanages etc., all related to the Catholic Church, as well as a few houses. Throughout his entire career his work shows little evolution in style. There are however four periods in his career. Between 1871 and 1876 Tepe tries to develop his style an experiments with several types of churches. His designs are sparsely decorated in this period. The second phase, from 1876 until 1890 sees an increase in decorations. Between 1890 and 1900 builds several churches with centralizing tendencies, mostly in the form of hall-churches. In the fourth period Tepe’s development has ceased, and several of his designs are closely related to some of his older churches. Especially after 1900 Tepe occassionally built churches in Germany, while the competition in his own country became too strong. In 1905 Tepe moved to Germany, where he designed several more churches, and died in D