The golden ratio is the "divine proportion".
But some of the things you quoted are not an example of it at all.
Parthenon, Is an example of even proportion.
pyramids, Are not an example as they all had different proportions.
Le Corbusier's Modulor, This one is an example, used phi (golden ratio) to relate to scale in human body.
the kilometre to mile ratio Is very very close, but both ratios are exact and they differ from two decimal places
the euro/sterling exchange rate. This is way off.
Its worth pointing out that Le Corbusier's Modulor, is an example of the golden ratio, but he didnt come up with the idea od relating it to the body. The famous Da Vinci drawing of The Vitruvian Man, Leonardo's study of the proportions of the human body was based on this priniple too. And I believe vitruvius also had a bash at it.