reorganisation and destruction of irish catholic churches

Re: reorganisation and destruction of irish catholic churche

Postby Praxiteles » Fri Dec 14, 2012 1:12 am

Plans to demolish church put on hold

CONTROVERSIAL plans to demolish St Winefride’s Roman Catholic Church in Aberystwyth have dramtically been put on hold, the Cambrian News can reveal.

A planning application by the Diocese of Menevia to demolish the church in Queen’s Road and erect a housing development to fund a new church in Penparacu was withdrawn last week.

Church bosses ordered the closure of the church in November on safety grounds and since then the congregation has been forced to attend services in the Morlan Centre and St Padarn’s School.

Worshippers have now been left not knowing what the future holds.

It is not known whether a new application for the demolition of St Winefride’s will be made, if the new church in Penparcau will be built or if the existing church will be renovated, as the diocese did not respond to calls for a comment.

Ceredigion County Council’s planning authority has this week confirmed that the planning application, and Conservation Area Consent application, concerning the demolition of St Winefride’s Church, and the erection of a residential development, were both formally withdrawn on 28 November.

Many members of the congregation, heritage groups and the town council had been opposing the demolition of St Winefride’s.

Opponents in the church have been arguing that the cost of repairing St Winefride’s are not as great as claimed by the diocese and say a new church in Penparcau would be inconvenient for worshippers without cars.
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Re: reorganisation and destruction of irish catholic churche

Postby Praxiteles » Tue Dec 18, 2012 8:27 pm

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Re: reorganisation and destruction of irish catholic churche

Postby Praxiteles » Thu Dec 20, 2012 2:21 pm

Angry parishioners demand halt to €700,000 church renovation

A ROW has broken out between parishioners and Catholic authorities over the €700,000 renovations to a country church.

More than 80 parishioners at Our Lady of Lourdes Church in Creagh outside Ballinasloe, Co Galway, have demanded that renovation works cease after they claimed a number of planning stipulations were breached.

Parishioners are applying to Galway planning authorities to have the works stopped until matters can be resolved.

They have also demanded the suspension of Mass collections for the renovation fund.

Former Ballinasloe mayor John Molloy said locals had voiced serious concerns about a number of changes to the refurbishment plans.

Among the most serious concerns was the removal of the original tiles from the nave of the church, which had been described as "an asset" by the local council.

"These tiles were put down in the 1930s and are supposed to be protected. They run right up the nave across the front. Parishioners understood they were to remain but they have all been removed and they are putting white marble in their place. What took place is cultural vandalism," said Mr Molloy.

Locals are also unhappy that a boundary wall outside the church is over a foot higher than what appeared on the plans.

They claim the change is ruining the aspect of the church.

They are also concerned about landscaping, with the number of trees due to be planted rising from 19 to 60.

"We examined the plan and it was placed at the back of the church for parishioners to view but that doesn't help if what they end up doing is totally different. People are very annoyed about it. We've been in to meet the priest but we felt we had to take it further," added Mr Molloy.

Our Lady of Lourdes was once the Athlone military garrison church, built in the 1880s.

In the early 1930s it was dismantled and transported block by block to its current location were it was reconstructed and consecrated in 1933.

The concerned parishioners held a meeting this week to discuss the refurbishment where 80 signed a statement claiming that the work was not in accordance with the guidelines as stipulated in the drawing plans.

They called for an immediate halt to the work.

They also called for the second collection at weekend Masses over the last number of years, which went towards the building fund, to be halted.

Invitations had been issued to church authorities and members of the restoration committee to attend the meeting but they declined.

Restoration

Bishop of Clonfert John Kirby said he was surprised by the protest, adding that the restoration committee was working closely with the local council.

"If people have any concerns there is a restoration committee that they can put their case to. The committee has been following all the rules as far as I am aware. They have also been working closely with a conservation officer from Galway County Council," he added.
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Re: reorganisation and destruction of irish catholic churche

Postby Praxiteles » Fri Jan 11, 2013 6:43 pm

The Harry Clarke Glass at St. Brighid's, Van Ness Avenue, San Francisco
http://goyodelarosa.wordpress.com/tag/h ... francisco/
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Re: reorganisation and destruction of irish catholic churche

Postby CologneMike » Thu Jan 17, 2013 8:24 pm

Lecture on 160 years of city family business (Limerick Leader)
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God's Decorators - Hodkinson Lecture.png
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Re: reorganisation and destruction of irish catholic churche

Postby Praxiteles » Mon Jan 21, 2013 11:23 pm

The Church Building as a Sacred Place: Beauty, Transcendence and the Eternal
Duncan G. Stroik



Image



This retrospective and forward-looking collection of 23 essays by Duncan Stroik shows the development and consistency of his architectural vision over the last eighteen years. The essays cover church modernism and modernity, renaissance and renewal, principles of church design, and a critique of modern iconoclasm.
The appendices feature: a bibliography, a useful chart showing the comparative size of well known churches, as well as comparative sizes of baldacchinos in Rome, and a list of canonical documents pertaining to church architecture.
Packed with informative essays and over 170 photographs, this collection will help priests, bishops, liturgical consultants, lay commissions and parishioners understand the Church’s architectural tradition.
Duncan Stroik’s architectural practice and career have helped lead the evolution of the international classical movement, and over the past decade his work has been instrumental in the new renaissance of sacred architecture. Stroik and his work have been featured on PBS, A&E, and EWTN television. His design work and essays on architecture have been featured in New York Times, Wall Street Journal, New Republic, Crisis, Inside the Vatican, Our Sunday Visitor, and Catholic Dossier. He is the founder and editor of the journal, Sacred Architecture. He lectures widely on the principles of traditional architecture and Catholic church design.

"For decades Duncan Stroik has led the renewal movement in Catholic church architecture and its reengagement with tradition. Once a lone voice crying in the wilderness, he has since become a leading educator and practitioner, a man whose name is almost a household word and has proven that large, beautiful, traditional Catholic architecture is indeed possible today. For this reason, this book is almost as much a collection of primary source readings about Stroik's role in the New Classical movement as it is a primer on church architecture itself. The person who reads this book will not simply learn about the Church's architectural tradition, but be immersed firsthand in a rich and exciting historical narrative, getting in on the ground floor of a movement that historians have only recently begun to recognize and chronicle."

--Denis R. McNamara
Author, Catholic Church Architecture and the Spirit of the Liturgy
Assistant Director, Liturgical Institute
From the Foreword

Hardcover, 8 1/2 x 11

Available December 2012

978-1-59525-037-7
Order Code: HCBSP
Text Language: English
In Stock No

Price: $70.00
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Re: reorganisation and destruction of irish catholic churche

Postby Praxiteles » Sun Jan 27, 2013 7:46 pm

Forgotten frescoes uncovered at East London church


Image


A remarkable discovery was made in an east London church earlier this month when exploratory restoration work revealed beneath layers of paint, the original decorations of EW Pugin, featuring Latin inscriptions and stylised floral motifs.

St Monica's Church at Hoxton Square, which survived the Blitz, was built in 1864-65, shortly after the parish was founded as a mission of the Irish Augustinians to the East End of London.

EW Pugin, the son of Augustus Welby Pugin, one of Victorian England's most eminent church architects, designed St Monica's Church and priory, the first permanent foundation of the Augustinian friars in England since the Reformation.
A gilded wooden altar with reredos was installed in 1875: Cardinal Manning came to consecrate it, and thought it was the finest in Westminster diocese. In 1880 a Lady Chapel was created: it was blessed by the Cardinal on the feast of the Immaculate Conception in December.

Into the front of the chapel's altar was set a copy of the miraculous image preserved at an Augustinian shrine in Italy, the Basilica of Our Lady of Good Counsel, Genazzano.
Sadly, the statues of Ss Monica and Augustine that originally flanked the sanctuary have disappeared. However the discovery of the inscriptions and floral motifs could mean that other treasures are yet to be found.
The story of St Monica's would be incomplete without mention of Father Michael Kelly (1833-1914), the 'Saint of the Slums'. Born in Inistioge, Co. Kilkenny, Ireland, Fr Kelly was ordained to the priesthood in 1863.

The following year he was transferred to Hoxton. Within three years of his arrival, he set up a committee to relieve the distress resulting from a severe winter, was instrumental in establishing the parish school and raising money for it, and quickly gained the respect of the local people, especially the Catholic poor.

So widespread was his fame at the end of his life, that his obituary appeared in The New York Times and pictures of his funeral covered the entire back page of the Edwardian London tabloid, The Daily Sketch.
It is difficult to imagine present-day Hoxton Square, with its proliferation of avant-garde art galleries, graphic design studios, and trendy bar-restaurants, as it was in Fr Kelly's time, when London was one of the fastest-growing cities in the industrialised world. Thousands flocked to its crowded tenements looking for work.

A small house only two doors away from the priory had 40 people living in it. Hoxton and Shoreditch's poverty was notorious, even by the standards of the day: the infamous 'Old Nichol' slum was in St Monica's parish.

Hoxton was thought to be the most drunken district in London: there were over 47 pubs in Hoxton street alone. It was into this setting that Fr Kelly came as a young priest from rural Ireland, as were many of his parishoners.
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Re: reorganisation and destruction of irish catholic churche

Postby apelles » Sat Feb 02, 2013 2:11 am

Angry parishioners demand halt to €700,000 church renovation



By Caroline Crawford

Wednesday December 19 2012

A ROW has broken out between parishioners and Catholic authorities over the €700,000 renovations to a country church.

More than 80 parishioners at Our Lady of Lourdes Church in Creagh outside Ballinasloe, Co Galway, have demanded that renovation works cease after they claimed a number of planning stipulations were breached.

Parishioners are applying to Galway planning authorities to have the works stopped until matters can be resolved.

They have also demanded the suspension of Mass collections for the renovation fund.

Former Ballinasloe mayor John Molloy said locals had voiced serious concerns about a number of changes to the refurbishment plans.

Among the most serious concerns was the removal of the original tiles from the nave of the church, which had been described as "an asset" by the local council.

"These tiles were put down in the 1930s and are supposed to be protected. They run right up the nave across the front. Parishioners understood they were to remain but they have all been removed and they are putting white marble in their place. What took place is cultural vandalism," said Mr Molloy.

Locals are also unhappy that a boundary wall outside the church is over a foot higher than what appeared on the plans. They claim the change is ruining the aspect of the church. They are also concerned about landscaping, with the number of trees due to be planted rising from 19 to 60.

"We examined the plan and it was placed at the back of the church for parishioners to view but that doesn't help if what they end up doing is totally different. People are very annoyed about it. We've been in to meet the priest but we felt we had to take it further," added Mr Molloy.

Our Lady of Lourdes was once the Athlone military garrison church, built in the 1880s. In the early 1930s it was dismantled and transported block by block to its current location were it was reconstructed and consecrated in 1933.

The concerned parishioners held a meeting this week to discuss the refurbishment where 80 signed a statement claiming that the work was not in accordance with the guidelines as stipulated in the drawing plans. They called for an immediate halt to the work.

They also called for the second collection at weekend Masses over the last number of years, which went towards the building fund, to be halted.

Invitations had been issued to church authorities and members of the restoration committee to attend the meeting but they declined.

Restoration

Bishop of Clonfert John Kirby said he was surprised by the protest, adding that the restoration committee was working closely with the local council.

"If people have any concerns there is a restoration committee that they can put their case to. The committee has been following all the rules as far as I am aware.

"They have also been working closely with a conservation officer from Galway County Council," he added.

- Caroline Crawford

Irish Independent
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Re: reorganisation and destruction of irish catholic churche

Postby Praxiteles » Fri Feb 15, 2013 12:20 am

An Architect’s Delightful Capriccio
by Thomas Gordon Smith

Borromini’s Book: The Full Relation of The Building of the Roman Oratory
by Francesco Borromini and Virgilio Spada, Trans. by Kerry Downes
2009 Oblong Creative Ltd., 536 pages, 145

Three years ago, Kerry Downes published a compilation of at least thirty years of organization, analysis, and interpretation: Borromini’s Book. The first merit of Professor Downes’s book is his English translation of Borromini’s Opus Architectonicum, subtitled in English, The Oratory and Roman House of the Congregation of the Oratory of S. Philip Neri. The candid account by Francesco Borromini and Virgilio Spada of vissicitude and success is essential reading for paradigmatic architects and readers interested in Catholic churches. Downes’s clear translation greatly extends access to this fascinating account of Borromini’s twelve-year involvement in design and building for the Oratorians from 1637 to 1649.

The thirty-eight year old Francesco Borromini was asked to devise a holistic monastic complex in Rome to the west of San Filippo Neri’s Santa Maria in Vallicella, a church completed in 1606. The Oratorian priest, Virgilio Spada, was unaware of Borromini initially, but soon became an invaluable patron. Spada’s politically and socially astute sophistication about architecture helped Borromini achieve a rich and complex structure, despite incremental construction. Spada’s diplomacy within his religious community also kept the temperamental architect working—due to his ability to explain the plans and pacify his brothers.

In 1647 Spada, ever modest and prudent, became an unacknowledged co-author for Borromini’s account of planning and construction. In the Opus, he also helped provide passionate descriptions of an architect’s job creating unity from a multitude of requirements. Although the autograph text and illustrations were not published until 1725, in the long run this proved beneficial. Despite the almost sixty-year delay after Borromini’s death, the type-set text and large-scale engravings illustrating the Oratorians’ house in great detail, rekindled enthusiasm for complexity and curvilinear form in ecclesiastical architecture. A generation of architects born in the 1680s in Rome, Piedmont, Germany, and Bohemia, reanimated the lively and meaningful ideas of Borromini and his contemporaries. The 1725 monograph provided an opulent and precise presentation of Borromini’s words and images that took advantage of new typographical developments. The Opus provides the most extensively detailed account and visual documentation of Borromini’s many buildings.

In the mid-nineteenth century, the Oratorian complex was taken by the national government; only a few areas were retained by the Oratorians. Despite this takeover, the Oratorian structures remain essentially unaltered, thanks to the appreciation and decorum of generations of Italians. When in Rome, I suggest polite requests to see as much as possible via Borromini’s portal between the Church and Oratory façade, although many areas are closed to visitors.

Downes follows his translation with crisp reproductions of the 1725 publication. Images are arranged at different scales to help comprehension of its many components. Plates 61 through 64, for example, show plans, section/elevations, and perspective details of the relationship between the ground-level Refectory and the Recreation Room above it. These are followed by a sumptuous engraving of the beautiful marble fireplace in the Recreation Room. The mantel is surmounted by a fluted tent-like funnel that conveys the flue to the chimney. Of mid-seventeenth century Roman architects, only Borromini would have exercised such a provocative concept. Below a curvaceous horizontal cornice, his sculptors carved a hanging valence of alternating rectangles and squares, separated by voids for hanging ropes finished with knots and tassels. These are rectilinear versions of the bronze pelmets Borromini designed with Bernini for the baldachino at Saint Peter’s in 1630. The whole composition alludes to a type of campaign tent devised by the Ottomans and emulated by their European foes.

Image

ireplace at the Sala di Recreazione. Photo: Paolo Portoghesi’s Francesco Borromini, Milan: Electa Editrice, 1967 & 1984.

Two factors made this imaginative undertaking possible for the still-new confraternity who desired modesty and fiduciary responsibility. First, while the carving was expensive, the material was gratis. A huge hunk of white marble was discovered during excavations for foundations on the site. This block of stone had been transported but not used in ancient Roman times. Second, Borromini complains in the Opus about Oratorian restrictions on ornament in general, “And if in anything I exceeded a little bit the rule prescribed to me I heard grumbling for some time.” In the Ricreazione mantel, Borromini, perhaps with Spada’s diplomacy, was allowed to leverage the fortuitous stone into a delightful capriccio by carving in relief symbols dear to San Filippo on the square flaps: florid lilies, many-pointed stars, and flaming hearts. Hanging from a tent, these flaps would move with the winds, but in an architectural pun, the solid flaps mimic the canonical sequence of triglyphs on a Doric frieze, just as we see them on that paragon of stability, the Parthenon.

Borromini explains in the same section on ornament that, “among the rules prescribed to me by the Fathers was one that required frugality…relaxing the rein somewhat only in matters pertaining to divine worship…to the point that in dealing with the façade of their House they did not want it to be made with a facing of cut bricks…or bands of travertine… They aimed above all things at moderation.” In his penetrating study, Borromini and the Roman Oratory, Joseph Connors found wide latitude in congregational opinions on what constitutes moderation. Nevertheless, many secular areas are composed in remarkable Borrominian forms executed with simple materials. Because the Oratorians allowed the sacred functions to be visually-elevated, the south façade representing the Oratory is extremely sophisticated. The mass is appreciably smaller than the travertine church and it is built primarily of brick. Borromini extended the datum line of the Corinthian columns and entablature of the church westward. This device created basic unity between the buildings. His imaginative simplification of Corinthian details on the Oratory conveys the inferiority of the Oratory-to-Church hierarchy, however, only in theory. I would compare this architectural achievement to the stimulating infusion the Oratorians gave to European music by introducing sacred oratories, developed from San Filippo’s liturgical practices, into highly effective compositions. These new forms of melodious proselytizing were the functions that required superb acoustics for preaching and sung sacred dramas.

Kerry Downes’s massive work follows the pioneering publications on Borromini by Paolo Portoghesi, Christian Norberg-Schulz, and Joseph Connors. Downes’s book is 536 pages long and has a practical ingenuity. The English translation takes about forty pages; opposite each page is an unusual, but handy, forty pages of footnotes proximate to the text. Many of these pages display vignette diagrams of related building parts and precedents.

The rest of the book illustrates Borromini’s known sources. These include, for example, the juxtaposition of hand-drawn Michelangelo and Borromini profiles on page 387 and an important set of photographs of Palazzo Mattei by Borromini’s mentor, Carlo Maderno, on pages 394-395. Many photographs in the color “Prequel” and the black-and-white “Sequel” to the translation of the Opus are blurred and discolored. Accepting this, one appreciates the devotion of a specialist of the eighteenth-century English Baroque who has been fascinated by Oratorian culture and charism since childhood. Since Borromini’s book and his buildings have had perennial impact on Catholic architecture and music, Professor Downes has bestowed a great gift.

I am delighted that a magnificent new book focuses on the works and text of an incomparable architect who has been a hero to me for decades and whose buildings I recommend as paradigms for students of classical architecture.

Thomas Gordon Smith, AIA, is principal of the firm Thomas Gordon Smith Architects and is professor of architecture at the University of Notre Dame. His design work at a Benedictine monastery in Oklahoma, a seminary in Nebraska and other ecclesiastical and civic projects can be seen at www.tgsarchitect.com
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Re: reorganisation and destruction of irish catholic churche

Postby Praxiteles » Fri Mar 01, 2013 1:26 am

St. Mary and St. Anne's Cathedral Cork


Last December a set of 7 architectural drawings for works to the North Cathedral in Cork was sold at Mealy's auction of rare books and papers.

The drawings outline proposals for the Cathedral by John Benson

http://www.mealys.com/rarebooks/Bidcat/detail.asp?SaleRef=0221&LotRef=531
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Re: reorganisation and destruction of irish catholic churche

Postby Praxiteles » Fri Mar 22, 2013 11:18 pm

Archval material relating to the Building of Holy Cross Chruch, Tramore, Co. Waterford

The Church by JJ McCarthy the stonemasons Fagans

http://www.waterfordcoco.ie/en/services ... chtramore/
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Re: reorganisation and destruction of irish catholic churche

Postby Praxiteles » Tue Mar 26, 2013 11:53 am

Bell Tower at Waterloo, Blarney, Co. Cork

One of Ireland's Earliest neo-Romanesque Buildings

http://corkarchaeologist.wordpress.com/ ... ty-cork-6/
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Re: reorganisation and destruction of irish catholic churche

Postby Praxiteles » Thu Apr 11, 2013 11:18 pm

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Re: reorganisation and destruction of irish catholic churche

Postby apelles » Fri Apr 12, 2013 8:34 pm

St Rynagh's in Banagher http://strynaghschurch.ie/ has reopened after a little friendly dialogue with the Offaly planners about relocating the rose window from an abandoned convent chapel down the road to its new home in the church sanctuary wall.

Image
The salvaged window

Image
How the old Ray Carroll sanctuary looked prior the works

Image
The sanctuary now with rose window incorporated

Note the now nearly obligatory use of red carpet Praxiteles, speaking of which, do you happen to recognize where this Eamon Hedderman interior is located http://www.hollyparkstudio.ie/Liturgical.html.

Image

And is it just me :crazy: or is there way too heavy an emphasis on the neo Gothic reredos in what is obviously a Romanesque church interior?
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Re: reorganisation and destruction of irish catholic churche

Postby gunter » Wed Apr 17, 2013 11:38 pm

What do the gentlemen of this thread know of the work of a Dublin stained glass artist called John Casey, who sometimes traded as J & D Casey, of Moore Street and later Marlborough Street, 1830s to 1870s?
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Re: reorganisation and destruction of irish catholic churche

Postby Praxiteles » Thu Apr 18, 2013 7:11 pm

From the Journal of Sacred Architecture[align=][/align]

[align=]Bene et Firmiter
A SHORT HISTORY OF RESERVATION OF THE EUCHARIST
by Cassian Folsom, OSB, appearing in Volume 22[/align]
For the purpose of trying to discern major shifts in the theory and practice of the reservation of the Blessed Sacrament, the history of the tabernacle can be divided into four sections: the patristic period until Carolingian times, the Carolingian period until the Council of Trent, the Council of Trent to Vatican II, and Vatican II to the present.

The Patristic Period until Carolingian Times1

The evidence from this early period deals with two kinds of reservation of the Blessed Sacrament: 1) the private reservation of the Eucharist in the homes of the faithful, and 2) the reservation of the Eucharist in the church for the sake of giving Communion to the sick or the dying.2 In the first category, the homes of the faithful, there is very little information about how or where the Eucharist was reserved, although some sources indicate that it was reverently wrapped in a piece of white linen, or placed in a special chest or container.3 In the case of the reservation of the Blessed Sacrament in churches, the Apostolic Constitutions, c.VIII, no.13 indicate that the deacons should bring what was left over of the Eucharistic species consecrated during the Mass to a special room called the Pastoforio: in the Oriental churches, this was situated on the south side of the altar. In the West, it had the name secretarium or sacrarium. The deacon had the keys since the administration of the Eucharist was his special charge. In this room there was a special wardrobe or chest called a conditorium. An example of this can be seen in the fifth-century mosaics of the Galla Placidia mausoleum in Ravenna.4 In pre-Carolingian times, however, there is no evidence for the use of the altar as a place for the reservation of the Eucharist.5


Image

Conditorium depicted in Ravenna mosaic. Photo: Holly Hayes, Art History Images, flickr.com

From the ninth century onward, the reservation of the Blessed Sacrament in the church becomes the norm, while the practice of keeping the Eucharist in the homes of the faithful disappears. This is a one of those fundamental shifts which merits greater attention. Giambattista Rapisarda offers three reasons for such a significant change in Eucharistic practice: 1) the rise of major Eucharistic controversies about the nature of Christ’s presence, starting with Paschasius Radbertus (+859) and Ratramnus (+868); 2) the spread of a different spirituality reflected in the new genre of apologetic prayers which manifested enormous respect for the Eucharist and a sense of profound unworthiness before so great a mystery; and 3) the conversion of barbarian peoples en masse with the danger of profanation of the Eucharist on the one hand and superstition on the other.6

The Carolingian Period until the Council of Trent

The six or seven centuries we are dealing with in this second period contain notable developments in Eucharistic theology and practice. Mention must be made of Berengarius (+1088) and the Eucharistic controversy that raged around him; the development of a new Eucharistic piety manifested in the desire to see the Host, with the resultant introduction of the elevation first of the Host, then of the Chalice at the Consecration of the Mass; the scholastic precisions about transubstantiation; the diffusion of the feast of Corpus Christi; the decline in the reception of Communion, and so on. Some of these factors contribute to new ways of reserving the Eucharist (the Sacrament-towers, for example). At other times, the force of custom results in the retention of more traditional forms. Righetti distinguishes five basic ways of reserving the Blessed Sacrament during this period:7

1) Propitiatorium: a container or small chest which was placed on the altar; hence a kind of portable tabernacle. The Fourth Lateran Council (1215-1216) prescribed that it should be locked and kept secure. This system was rather widespread in Italy in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.

2) Sacristy: In many places, the Eucharist was kept in the sacristy, in some kind of special chest or cupboard. In many places, this practice continued until the Council of Trent.

3) Eucharistic dove: around the eleventh century this system was used: a metal dove (symbolizing the Holy Spirit), hollow, of modest proportions, which was suspended over the altar from the ciborium (if there was one), or on a small table next to the altar. This system was frequently used in France and England, but rarely in Italy.

Image

Thirteenth century Eucharistic Dove from Limoges, France. Photo: The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, MD

4) Wall tabernacles: From the thirteenth century onward this was the system most commonly used, especially in Italy and Germany, because it was more practical and more secure. On the Gospel side of the altar, a tabernacle was built into the wall. A fine example of such a tabernacle can be seen in San Clemente in Rome (thirteenth century). From the seventeenth century onward, with the development of the tabernacle on the altar, these wall tabernacles were then used to reserve the sacred oils.

Image

The sanctuary at San Clemente, Rome, with a wall tabernacle located at the right side. Photo: Peter Viktor Jurik

5) Sakramentshäuschen or Sacrament-towers: This was a specialty of northern Europe (Germany, Low Countries, and northern France) from the fourteenth to the seventeenth centuries. It was usually in the shape of a tower, built close to the altar, the consecrated host kept in a glass container protected by a metal grate of some kind. This responded to the popular piety developing at the time: the desire to see the host. These “towers” were actually a kind of monstrance, with a kind of permanent exposition of the Blessed Sacrament. One notes a great deal of variety according to time and place. At this time there is no standard practice for the universal Church.

Image

Sakramentshäuschen by Adam Kraft, Lorenzkirche, Nürnberg, 1493 (now an Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirche). Photo: Nürnbercher, flickr.com

The Council of Trent to Vatican II

What changed Catholic practice radically in this third period was the Protestant denial of the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist, and the response of the Counter-Reformation to this challenge. While the Council of Trent affirms against the Reformers that the Blessed Sacrament should be reserved,8 the canon in question is not very specific, mentioning the place of reservation in passing as the sacrarium. Popular piety and two bishops will play an important role in establishing a new form of Eucharistic reservation. In the sixteenth century, even before the Council of Trent, Bishop Gian Matteo Giberti of Verona (+1543) ordered that the Eucharist should be reserved in a tabernacle on the main altar: “The tabernacle should be placed on the main altar, and should be installed permanently (bene et firmiter) in such a way that it can by no means be carried off by sacrilegious hands.”9 This eventually caught on in the neighboring diocese of Milan, such that in 1565, at the First Provincial Synod of Milan, it was decreed that: “The bishop should diligently see to it that in the cathedral, in collegiate churches, in parishes and all other kind of churches, where the most holy Eucharist is usually reserved or where it should be reserved, it be placed on the main altar, unless it seems to him otherwise, on account of some necessary or serious reason.”10 In 1576, another synod of Milan prohibited wall tabernacles, and ordered their destruction. Saint Charles Borromeo lent this new custom the full weight of his moral and spiritual authority. In the duomo of Milan, he transferred the Blessed Sacrament from the sacristy, where it had been kept up until then, to the main altar of the church. In 1577 Cardinal Borromeo’s book Instructionum Fabricae et Supellectilis Ecclesiasticae Libri II was published,11 a work which was to have enormous influence in shaping church architecture and design in the centuries to come. Concerning the tabernacle he simply argues from authority, without providing any other justification. Since the provincial synod of Milan in 1565 decreed that the tabernacle should be on the main altar, if possible, Saint Charles assumes that this practice will be followed, and gives instructions concerning the materials to be used, style, decorative motifs, measurements, etc. Because the Rituale Romanum of 1614 incorporated this practice into its “praenotanda” in the section of the Most Holy Sacrament of the Eucharist (Titulus IV, c.1, par.6),12 the custom of reserving the Blessed Sacrament in a tabernacle on the altar became known as “the Roman custom.” The placement on the main altar was not absolute, however, since it was foreseen that another altar might be more worthy or more suitable. Because the Rituale was not obligatory, the “Roman custom” of placing the tabernacle on the main altar spread only gradually, while other European countries maintained their local customs, sometimes for centuries.13 But the section on the tabernacle of Charles Borromeo’s Instructions had more influence than perhaps any other section of that work, and by the seventeenth to the eighteenth centuries, the altar tabernacle that is found almost everywhere is the tabernacle of Saint Charles Borromeo.14

Image

Tabernacle and altar, Duomo of Santa Maria Nascente, Milan, Italy. Photo: Antonio Perez Rio

The extremely important shift that took place after the Council of Trent can be explained by a number of factors: 1) the Protestant denial of the reservation of the Blessed Sacrament and the Church’s affirmation of her doctrine in the clearest possible way by placing the tabernacle in the center of the high altar; 2) the resultant increase in Eucharistic devotions such as adoration and Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament; 3) the flourishing of Baroque architecture, especially in Rome, manifesting a larger-than-life enthusiasm and pride in the Catholic faith in the Eucharistic Presence; 4) the standardization of liturgical books (in this case the Roman Ritual) and the gradual standardization of liturgical practice as a result.

Vatican II to the Present

The fifty years that have elapsed since the Second Vatican Council have been characterized by enormous changes in liturgical theology and practice. The placement of the tabernacle in relation to the altar has been a topic of heated debate. What was normative in the post-Tridentine period has been largely rejected in the post-Vatican II period. While there has been general consensus about where the tabernacle should not be (on the main altar), there has been little consensus about where it should be. Theological disagreement about these issues has led to a rather confusing and sometimes contradictory pastoral practice. These changes will be traced in detail in the second section of this paper on Liturgical Norms. (Sacred Architecture Issue 23)


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Blessed Sacrament Chapel, Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, Los Angeles, CA. Photo: Zeetz Jones

There were two main reasons for the enormous shift that has taken place. The theological motivation was to restore emphasis on the altar and the Eucharistic action of the Mass, as opposed to the adoration and worship of the reserved Sacrament (a kind of dichotomy between the Eucharist seen as sacrifice and the Eucharist seen as sacrament). The result in practice has been a decline in Eucharistic devotion. The pastoral motivation was to promote active participation by placing the altar versus populum. In older churches a common solution has been to place a new altar in front of the old altar, thus creating a certain cognitive dissonance in the worshipper, at least at the subconscious level. The dilemma of where to put the reserved Blessed Sacrament has been frequently resolved by creating a side chapel. While that has been the practice for centuries in great basilicas and cathedrals and is eminently suitable under those conditions, many modern renovations have been less than felicitous, and small and crowded Blessed Sacrament chapels can seem inadequate and even irreverent. The revised General Instructions of the 2002 Roman Missal attempt to resolve some of these dilemmas by proposing a new model.
Born in 1955 in Massachusetts, The Very Rev. Cassian Folsom, O.S.B. has been a monk since 1979 and a priest since 1984. He served as the pro-President of the Pontificio Istituto Liturgico at the Athenaeum of Sant’ Anselmo from 1997 to 2000, and is the founding prior of the Monastery of San Benedetto, located in Norcia, Italy, the birthplace of St. Benedict. Father Cassian is also a member of the Society for Catholic Liturgy, and is the author of numerous studies on Roman Catholic liturgy. In 2010, Pope Benedict XVI named Father Cassian as a consulter to the Congregation on Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments.

1 Cf. H. Leclercq, “Réserve Eucharistique” DACL XIV.2 (1948): 2385-2389. For useful insights about the importance of the Carolingian period for Eucharistic development, cf. Adalbert DeVogüé, “Eucharistie dominicale, eucharistie quotidienne,” La Maison-Dieu 242 (2005/2): 33-44.
2 The First Council of Nicea (325), c.13, refers to the reservation of the Eucharist (in the church) for the sake of viaticum. There are also many hagiographical texts which speak of bringing communion to the sick or dying. For an excellent anthology of patristic texts concerning both reservation in homes (89-94) and in churches (94-97), cf. Giambattista Rapisarda, “La Custodia Eucaristia,” in Gli spazi della celebrazione rituale (Milan: Edizioni O.R., 1984), 89-108.
3 Mario Righetti, Storia Liturgica, Milano, Editrice Ancora, 1964 (edizione anastatica 1998) Vol. 1, 547.
4 Cf. Righetti, 546-547.
5 Joseph Braun, Der Christliche Altar in seiner geschichtlichen Entwicklung, München, Alte Meister Guenther Koch & Co., 1924, 582.
6 Rapisarda, 96.
7 Cf. Righetti, 549-552. Rapisarda expands on this description (97-100) but for the most part follows Righetti.
8 Session XIII of the Council of Trent, canon 7: “Si quis dixerit, non licere sacram Eucharistiam in sacrario reservari, sed statim post consecrationem adstantibus necessario distribuendam; aut non licere, ut illa ad infirmos honorifice deferatur: an.s.” (DS 1657).
9 “Tabernaculum super altare magno collocetur, et ita bene et firmiter stabiliatur, ut inde per sacrilegas manus avelli nullo modo possit.” Cf. Silverio Mattei, “La custodia eucaristica,” in Eucaristia: Il mistero dell’altare nel pensiero e nella vita della Chiesa, ed. A. Piolanti (Roma, 1957), 897-906. Citation on p. 902.
10 “Episcopus diligentissime curet, ut in cathedrali, collegiatis, parochialibus et aliis quibusvis ecclesiis, ubi sacrosancta Eucharistia custodiri solet vel debet, in maiore altari collocetur, nisi necessaria vel gravi de causa aliud ei videatur.” Acta Ecclesiae Mediolanensis, ed. A. Ratti, vol. II (Milan, 1892), col.46.
11 Charles Borromeo, Instructionum Fabricae et Supellectilis Ecclesiasticae Libri II, Monumenta Studia Instrumenta Liturgica 18 (Città del Vaticano: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2000). The section on the tabernacle is in Book I, c.13, 37-38.
12 “Hoc autem tabernaculum conopaeo decenter opertum, atque ab omni alia re vacuum, in Altari majori vel in alio, quod venerationi et cultui tanti Sacramenti commodius ac decentius videatur, sit collocatum . . .”
13 Examples of the gradual “conquest” of the Roman custom can be seen in two synodal documents. The Synod of Constance in 1609 allowed the Blessed Sacrament to be conserved “vel in ipso altari, secundum morem romanum, vel in latere sinistri chori prope altare.” The Synod of Paderborn in 1688 stated: “Tabernaculum, ubi nondum est, sollicitus sit rector ut id conficitur, quod fiat vel in medio altari, vel in pariete iuxta altare.” Citations taken from Silverio Mattei, “La Custodia Eucaristica,” 902.
14 Joseph Braun, Der Christliche Altar, 646-647.
Praxiteles
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Re: reorganisation and destruction of irish catholic churche

Postby Praxiteles » Thu Apr 18, 2013 7:20 pm

Appeles,

It is Kilrush.

If I recall, an Bord Pleannala had a thing or two to say about it.
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Re: reorganisation and destruction of irish catholic churche

Postby Praxiteles » Thu Apr 18, 2013 7:57 pm

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Re: reorganisation and destruction of irish catholic churche

Postby Fearg » Thu Apr 18, 2013 11:18 pm

Church of Saint Jacques Abbeville, France.

There have been some sad images posted on this thread over the past eight years or so, however I think this trumps them all.. you really have to see to believe:

http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?depth=1&hl=en&ie=UTF8&prev=_t&rurl=translate.google.co.uk&sl=auto&tl=en&u=http://saintjacques-l-oubliee.over-blog.com/&usg=ALkJrhj6RaWtnqXmMqL-6S_wK4vLMkumSQ
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Re: reorganisation and destruction of irish catholic churche

Postby Praxiteles » Thu Apr 18, 2013 11:54 pm

Here is some further background.

http://www.thearttribune.com/Threat-of- ... r-the.html

I have to say, the story here differes very little from what happened to teh Sacred Heart Church in Limerick which was destined fro a similar dangerous condtion scenario had it been left vacant much longer. It is all the more ironic that having survived the bombings during the war that this should happen.
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Re: reorganisation and destruction of irish catholic churche

Postby Fearg » Fri Apr 19, 2013 12:07 am

I suppose what makes it seem so extreme to me, is that Saint Jacques seems to have been a building similar in quality to the best of our Irish neo gothic cathedrals.. and its demise was conducted in a cold clinical way by the authorities. very sad.
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Re: reorganisation and destruction of irish catholic churche

Postby Praxiteles » Fri Apr 19, 2013 5:13 pm

Let me investigate the political colouration of the municipality of Abbéville and I shall revert. However, do not for a moment think that the same would not happen in Ireland - it already has in hundreds of smaller scale instances.

St Jacques looks remarkably like St Nicholas in Nantes, teh first neo-gothic church built in France and showing a design scheme remarkably like JJ McCarthy's churches with tower at the wet end and entrance in it.

From the level of force used in the demolition of the church, it would not appear to have been in such a state of disrepair as to suggest the danger of an immeidate collapse.
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Re: reorganisation and destruction of irish catholic churche

Postby Praxiteles » Fri Apr 19, 2013 5:27 pm

Ah well, are we surprised: the mayor of Abbeville is Nicolas Dumont of the French Socialist party.

It may well be that supermarket is being planned for the site of the church.

Some more recent info on the gentleman who finished off the blitz job of the Nazis. He seems to me a prime candidate for the Bill Tozer prize:

http://www.courrier-picard.fr/region/ni ... ia0b0n2325
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